10,000 BC

First Peoples Arrive

Early descendants of Canada's aboriginal people cross the Bering land bridge from east Asia into North America.

900 AD

Early Viking visitors

Viking explorers are believed to be the first Europeans to visit North America and establish L’Anse aux Meadows settlement on the island of Newfoundland.


Iroquois Confederacy

Foundation of the Iroquois Confederacy, considered the high point of "pre-contact" aboriginal civilization.

June 24, 1497

First British claim

Italian explorer John Cabot claims the island of Newfoundland for England.

July 24, 1534

First French claim

French explorer Jacques Cartier sails into the Gulf of St. Lawrence and claims the Gaspé Peninsula for France. Early attempts to found permanent French settlements fail.


French settlement begins

Explorer Samuel de Champlain establishes first French settlement on St. Croix Island. In 1605, the colony is relocated to Port-Royal.

May 13, 1607

British settlement begins

British explorer Christopher Newport establishes Jamestown as first permanent British colony in North America.

July 3, 1608

Founding of Quebec

Founding of Quebec City on the St. Lawrence River heralds first permanent French settlement in North America.

May 17, 1642

Founding of Montreal

The city of Montreal, then known as Ville-Marie, is founded by Paul de Chomedey Sieur de Maisonneuve.

Sep. 24, 1663

New France

New France becomes a royal colony of the French Empire.

May 2, 1670

Hudson's Bay Company founded

The Hudson's Bay Company is founded by Britain's King Charles II. The company is given control of a vast new territory known as Rupert's Land, comprising much of northern North America.

18th Century


Queen Anne's War

The North American front in the War of the Spanish Succession sees French and British forces battle for control of Atlantic colonies on the east coast of North America.

July 13, 1713

British take Atlantic Canada

The signing of the Treaty of Utrecht ends Queen Anne's War. France cedes the island of Newfoundland, the colony of Acadia, and its settlements on Hudson's Bay territory to England.


Expulsion of the Acadians

British expel French settlers from Acadia.

Sep. 14, 1752

Calendar switch

Colonies of the British Empire begin using the Gregorian calendar, abandoning the old Julian calendar.


French and Indian War

The North American front in the Seven Years War sees France and England battle for control of New France.

Sep. 13, 1759

Victory on the Plains of Abrahams

The decisive Battle of the Plains of Abraham results in British victory in the French and Indian War.

Feb. 10, 1763

British conquest of New France

Treaty of Paris ends the Seven Years War. France surrenders New France, now known as Quebec, to Britain.

Oct. 7, 1763

Royal Proclamation on Indians

A Royal Proclamation by Britain's King George III establishes general procedures for obtaining British control of aboriginal land.

June 22, 1774

Quebec Act

Britain passes the Quebec Act, which permits the the continuation of the French language, legal system and Catholic religion in the former New France.

July 1, 1776

Founding of the United States

13 British colonies in eastern North America revolt against colonial rule and form an independent country known as the United States of America. Loyalists flee to Quebec and Britain's Atlantic colonies.

Dec. 26, 1791

Establishment of Upper and Lower Canada

Britain passes Constitution Act, dividing Quebec into two colonies: Upper Canada (English) and Lower Canada (French).

July 22, 1793

British claim Pacific coast

British explorer Alexander Mackenzie crosses the Rocky Mountains and claims the Pacific coast of North America for Britain.

19th Century


British settle the west

British explorer Simon Fraser founds the Rocky Mountain settlement of Fort McLeod (in modern-day British Columbia) as the region's first permanent white settlement.


War of 1812

War of 1812: Britain and the United States battle for control of eastern North America.

Dec. 24, 1814

U.S. and Britain make peace

The Treaty of Ghent ends the War of 1812. Both Britain and the United States agree to re-establish the "status quo ante bellum" and return to the pre-1812 state of affairs.

March 6, 1834

Toronto founded

The City of Toronto is incorporated.

Aug. 1, 1834

Slavery abolished

Britain's Slavery Abolition Act takes effect, emancipating all slaves within the British Empire.

Feb. 4, 1839

Durham Report

In response to growing unrest in the Canadian colonies, Governor Lord Durham releases a report recommending the merging of Upper and Lower Canada.

Feb. 10, 1841

Upper and Lower Canada reunited

Britain passes an Act of Union unites Upper and Lower Canada into the United Province of Canada with a single parliamentary-style government.

Feb. 19, 1858

Founding of British Columbia

The British Crown Colony of British Columbia is established on the Pacific coast.

Sep. 1, 1864

Confederation talks

Charlottetown Conference sees politicians from the United Province of Canada and Britain's Maritime colonies begin talks over a possible political union.

July 1, 1867

Dominion of Canada established

The British North America Act takes effect, uniting the former United Province of Canada (now split into Quebec and Ontario) with Nova Scotia and New Brunswick and forming a new self-governing colony, the Dominion of Canada. The modern constitution of Canada takes effect.

Nov. 19, 1869

Canada annexes Rupert's Land

Negotiations between Canada, Britain, and the Hudson's Bay Company conclude with the HBC signing a "deed of surrender" that transfers control of their massive Rupert's Land and North West Territories to Canada.


Canadian money introduced

The Dominion Notes Act is passed establishing a uniform Canadian currency (the Canadian Dollar) across Canada.

July 15, 1870

Manitoba joins Canada

Manitoba is carved from the Rupert's Land territory to become the fifth province of Canada. The remaining land becomes known as the Northwest Territories.

May 8, 1871

British army leaves North America

Britain and the United States sign the Treaty of Washington, solidifying peace between their nations and removing all remaining British troops from North America.

July 25, 1871

British Columbia joins Canada

British Columbia becomes the sixth province of Canada.

July 1, 1873

PEI joins Canada

Prince Edward Island becomes the seventh province of Canada.

May 23, 1873

Mounties founded

The Northwest Mounted Police, precursor to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, are founded.

April 12, 1876

Indian Act

The Indian Act is passed by the Parliament of Canada, founding the modern system of Indian reservations.

Feb. 15, 1881

CPR starts

The federal government authorizes the construction of the transcontinental Canadian Pacific Railway.

Dec. 21, 1883

Canadian armed forces established

A militia known as the Royal Canadian Regiment is founded as the first permanent regiment of what will become the Canadian Army.

Nov. 7, 1885

CPR completed

The symbolic "last spike" is driven in Craigellachie, British Columbia, completing the Canadian Pacific Railway.

April 6, 1886

Vancouver founded

The city of Vancouver is incorporated.

June 13, 1898

Yukon joins Canada

The Yukon is separated from the Northwest Territories to become Canada's second territory.


South African War

Canadian troops are sent to fight for the British in the second South African Boer War.

20th Century

July, 1904

First Olympics

Canada sends its first-ever national team to the 1904 summer Olympics in St. Louis.

Sept. 1, 1905

Alberta and Saskatchewan created

Alberta and Saskatchewan are separated from the Northwest Territories to become the eighth and ninth provinces of Canada.

May 4, 1910

Canadian navy founded

Passage of the Naval Service Act creates the Royal Canadian Navy.


World War I

Canadian troops fight under British command during the First World War. Fighting officially ends on November 11, 1918.

June 7, 1917

First women elected

Roberta MacAdams Price of Alberta becomes the first woman elected to sit in a Canadian provincial parliament.

May 24, 1918

Women get the right to vote

Women are granted the right to vote in Canadian federal elections. Provinces follow suit at different times between 1916 and 1940.

Jan. 10, 1919

Canada joins League of Nations

Canada becomes one of the founding members of the League of Nations.


First Nobel Prize for a Canadian

Dr. Frederick Banting becomes the first Canadian to win a Nobel Prize for helping discover insulin.

April 1, 1924

Canadian air force founded

The Royal Canadian Air Force is established.

Oct. 29, 1929

Great Depression

A stock market crash in the United States triggers a worldwide "Great Depression"

Dec. 11, 1931

Canadian gets full independence

The Statute of Westminster grants Canada political independence from Britain, including the right to an independent foreign policy.

Sep. 10, 1939

Canada enters WWII

Canada declares war on Germany and sends troops to fight in World War II.

June 6, 1944


Canadian troops participate in the decisive D-Day invasion of Normandy, France.

May 8, 1945

V-E Day

The European theatre of World War II ends with the surrender of Germany.

Sep. 2, 1945

V-J Day

The Pacific Theatre of World War II ends with the surrender of the Japanese Empire. Canada is one of the signatories on the Japanese Instrument of Surrender.


Canadian army founded

The Canadian Army is founded, incorporating previous militias and regiments under a single land force command.

April 1, 1949

Newfoundland joins Canada

Newfoundland becomes the 10th and (to date) final province of Canada.

April 4, 1949

Canada joins NATO

Canada becomes one of the founding members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.


Supreme Court gains supremacy

Canadians can no longer make appeals to British courts. The Supreme Court of Canada becomes Canada's highest judicial body.


Korean War

Canadians fight in the Korean War under United Nations command.

Feb. 28, 1952

First Canadian GG

Vincent Massey is sworn in as the first Canadian-born governor general of Canada.

May 12, 1958

NORAD founded

Canada and the United States co-found the North American Aerospace Defense Command to jointly protect the security of North American airspace.

Jun. 22, 1960

Quebec's Quiet Revolution

The election of Liberal Jean Lesage as prime minister of Quebec heralds the beginning of Quebec's "quiet revolution" of secularization and modernization.


Nuclear weapons

American nuclear weapons begin being stationed in Canada.

Feb. 15, 1

A new flag

The Maple Leaf becomes Canada's official flag.

Jul. 1, 1967

Canada turns 100

Canada celebrates its centennial.



The passage of the Official Languages Act makes Canada an officially bilingual country with French and English as its two official languages.

Oct. 16, 1970

October Crisis

Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau evokes the martial law powers of the War Measures Act to crack down on separatist terrorists in Quebec following the assassination of vice-premier Pierre Laporte.

Jul. 17, 1976

Montreal Olympics

Montreal becomes the first Canadian city to host the summer Olympic games.

May 20, 1980

Separatism voted down

Quebec voters reject a referendum on separation from Canada.

April 17, 1982

Constitutional independence

Queen Elizabeth II signs the Canadian Constitution Act, transferring control of the former British North America Act — Canada's constitution — to Canada, thereby ending any remaining British political power over Canada. The revised version contains a new Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

June, 1984

Removal of nuclear weapons

The last American nuclear weapons are removed from Canada, ending a denuclearization phase.

Oct. 4, 1984

First Canadian in space

Marc Garneau becomes the first Canadian in outer space.

Oct. 3, 1987

Free Trade

A free trade agreement between Canada and the United States is approved. Mexico later joins the free trade bloc, forming the North American Free Trade Agreement, or NAFTA.

Jan-Mar, 1991

Gulf War

Canadians participate in the first Persian Gulf War to expel Iraq from Kuwait.

Mar. 29, 1993

First female premier

Catherine Callbeck of Prince Edward Island becomes the first woman to be elected premier of a Canadian province.

Oct. 30, 1995

Second referendum fails

Quebec voters narrowly reject a second referendum on separation from Canada.

Apr. 1, 1999

Nunavut founded

Nunavut is separated from the Northwest Territories to become Canada's third (and final) territory.

March, 1999

Yugoslavia war

Canada participates in NATO air strikes against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

The 21st Century

Feb. 3, 2001

Afghan War

Following the attacks of September 11, 2001, Canadian troops are deployed to Afghanistan to fight the Taliban regime and Islamic terrorists.

Jul. 7, 2011

End of Afghan War

Canada ends its combat mission in Afghanistan.

July 1, 2017

Canada turns 150

Canada celebrates its 150th birthday.

Feb. 2020-

Coronavirus Pandemic

The deadly respiratory disease known as COVID-19 wreaks havoc around the world, and kills nearly 30,000 Canadians